Stay Away from Indoctrination and Dogma

"As a result, we are no longer to be children, tossed here and there by waves and carried about by every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, by craftiness in deceitful scheming;" (Ephesians 4:14 NASB).

Monday, April 1, 2013

War & Peace: Western Powers, Prussia, Ottomans and Russia

The Russo-Turkish Wars were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries. It was one of the longest series of conflicts in European history. Elizaveta Petrovna (1709–1762), also known as Yelisavet and Elizabeth, was the Empress of Russia from 1741 until her death.

Empress Elizabeth led Russia into the two major European conflicts of her time: the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–8) and the Seven Years' War (1756–63). On the eve of her death, Russia spanned almost 6,250,000 square miles.

The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48) involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the realms of the House of Habsburg. The war included King George's War in North America, the War of Jenkins' Ear (which formally began on 23 October 1739), the First Carnatic War in India, and the First and Second Silesian Wars.

The Silesian Wars (German: Schlesische Kriege) refer to three conflicts between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy for control of Silesia and the County of Kladsko.

The First Silesian War (1740–1742) began under the pretext that Maria Theresa was ineligible to succeed to the Habsburg thrones of her father, Charles VI, because Salic law precluded royal inheritance by a woman—though in reality this was a convenient excuse put forward by Prussia and France to challenge Habsburg power. Austria was supported by Great Britain and the Dutch Republic, the traditional enemies of France, as well as the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Electorate of Saxony. France and Prussia were allied with the Electorate of Bavaria. Spain, which had been at war with Britain over colonies and trade ever since 1739, entered the war on the Continent to re-establish its influence in northern Italy, further reversing an Austrian dominance over the Italian peninsula that had been achieved at Spain's expense as a consequence of Spain's war of succession earlier in the 18th century.

The Second Silesian War (1744–1745) denote Prussian campaigns in the larger War of the Austrian Succession. The Austrians had lost Silesia to Prussia in the Battle of Mollwitz. This was the time when the Austrians, under the command of Field Marshal Otto Ferdinand von Abensberg und Traun, made the attempt to gain control of Silesia once again. The Prussians were again led by King Frederick the Great who had continued the expansionist policy of his father.


Flag of the British East India [Opium] Trading Company (founded 1600)

The Carnatic Wars (also spelled Karnatic Wars) were a series of military conflicts in the middle of the 18th century on the Indian subcontinent. The conflicts involved numerous nominally independent rulers and their vassals, struggles for succession and territory, and included a diplomatic and military struggle between the French East India Company and the British East India Company (founded in 1600).

In the 18th century the coastal Carnatic region was a dependency of Hyderabad, by a hereditary Nizam, meaning an Administrator of the Realm of the sovereigns of Hyderabad State, since 1724, belonging to the Turkic Asaf Jah dynasty. The capital city was Hyderabad.

Three Carnatic Wars were fought between 1746 and 1763. 

The [British] East India Company (EIC), originally chartered as the Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies, and more properly called the Honourable East India Company, was an English, and later (from 1707) British joint-stock company, formed to pursue trade with the East Indies but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent, Qing Dynasty China, North-West Frontier Province and Balochistan. The Company also ruled the beginnings of the British Empire in India.

The British East India Company rose to account for half of the world's trade, particularly trade in basic commodities that included cotton, silk, indigo dye, salt, saltpetre, tea, and OPIUMThe "Third Silesian War" is better known as the Seven Years' War (1756–1763).

Peter III (21 February 1728 – 17 July [O.S. 6 July] 1762) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. Peter was born in Kiel, in the duchy of Holstein-Gottorp. His parents were Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (nephew of Charles XII of Sweden), and Anna Petrovna, a daughter of Emperor Peter I and Empress Catherine I of Russia. His mother died three months after his birth. In 1739, Peter's father died, and he became Duke of Holstein-Gottorp as Charles Peter Ulrich (German: Karl Peter Ulrich). When his aunt, Anna's younger sister Elizabeth, became Empress of Russia, she brought Peter from Germany to Russia and proclaimed him her heir presumptive in the autumn of 1742. Previously in 1742, the 14-year-old Peter was proclaimed King of Finland during the Russo-Swedish War (1741–1743), when Russian troops held Finland. This proclamation was based on his succession rights to territories held by his childless granduncle, the late Charles XII of Sweden who also had been Grand Duke of Finland. About the same time, in October 1742, he was chosen by the Swedish parliament to become heir presumptive to the Swedish throne. However, the Swedish parliament was unaware of the fact that he had also been proclaimed heir presumptive to the throne of Russia, and when their envoy arrived in Saint Petersburg in November, it was too late. It has been reported that the underage Peter's succession rights to Sweden were renounced on his behalf.

Empress Elizabeth arranged for Peter to marry his second cousin, Sophia Augusta Frederica (later Catherine the Great), daughter of Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst and Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp. The young princess formally converted to Russian Orthodoxy and took the name Ekaterina Alexeievna (i.e., Catherine). They married on 21 August 1745.

Father Le Loutre’s War (1749–1755), also known as the Indian War, the Micmac War and the Anglo-Micmac War, took place between King George's War and the French and Indian War in Acadia and Nova Scotia. On one side of the conflict, the British and New England colonists were led by British Officer Charles Lawrence and New England Ranger John Gorham. Father Jean-Louis Le Loutre, a Roman Catholic priest, led the Mi'kmaq (Micmac) and the Acadia militia in a guerrilla war behind Anglo-American lines. (At the outbreak of the war there were an estimated 3000 Mi'kmaq and 12000 Acadians in the region.)

While the British Conquest of Acadia happened in 1710, the Micmac and Acadians contained the British to settlements at Port Royal and Canso. The rest of the colony was in the control of the Catholic Micmac and Acadians up until the Jesuit, Father Rale's War (1722–1725), also known as Lovewell's War, Governor Dummer's War, Greylock's War, the Three Years War, the 4th Anglo-Abenaki War or the Wabanaki-New England War of 1722–1725. Almost twenty-five years later, Father Le Loutre's War began when the British made a concerted effort to settle Protestants in the region and to establish military control over all of Nova Scotia and Acadia (present-day New Brunswick).

The German Peter III could hardly speak Russian and pursued a strongly pro-Prussian policy, which made him an unpopular leader. In 1762 Peter III secularized all church land and serfs, henceforth state property. Peter's wife, Catherine, promised to return the land if the church supported her coup. Peter III was assassinated as a result of the conspiracy led by his German wife, who succeeded him to the throne as Catherine II aka Catherine the Great---following a coup d'état at the end of the Seven Years' War.

The Seven Years' War was a war that took place between 1754 and 1763 with the main conflict being in the seven-year period 1756–1763. It involved most of the great powers of the time and affected Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines. In the historiography of some countries, the war is alternatively named after combatants in the respective theatres: the French and Indian War as it is known in the United States or the War of the Conquest as it is known in French-speaking Canada, while it is called the Seven Years' War in English-speaking Canada (North America, 1754–63); Pomeranian War (with Sweden and Prussia, 1757–62); Third Carnatic War (on the Indian subcontinent, 1757–63); and Third Silesian War (with Prussia and Austria, 1756–63).

The Seven Years' War was driven by the antagonism between the great powers of Europe. Great Britain competed with both France and Spain over trade and colonies. Meanwhile rising power Prussia was struggling with Austria for dominance within and outside of the Holy Roman Empire. In the wake of the War of the Austrian Succession, the major powers "switched partners" with Prussia establishing an alliance with Britain while traditional enemies France and Austria formed an alliance of their own. The Anglo-Prussian alliance was joined by smaller German states (especially Hanover) and later Portugal. The Austro-French alliance included Sweden, Saxony and later Spain. The Russian Empire was originally aligned with Austria, but switched sides upon the succession of Tsar Peter III in 1762 and, like Sweden, concluded a separate peace with Prussia. The Seven Year's War (French Indian War) ended with the Treaty of Paris between France, Spain and Great Britain and the Treaty of Hubertusburg between Saxony (a large region and former kingdom in Germany), Austria and Prussia in 1763.

The Seventh Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774) was a Russian victory over the Ottomans. The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War in the United States, was the successful rebellion against Great Britain of thirteen North American colonies who confederated themselves as the United States of America. Originally limited to fighting in those colonies, after 1778 it also became a world war between Britain and France, Netherlands, Spain, and Mysore. American independence was achieved and European powers recognized the independence of the new United States, with mixed results for the other nations involved.

Catherine the Great reneged on the promise to the church paying stipends with just 1/4 of the value of the seized land. She closed 569 out of 954 monasteries and only 161 got government money. Only 400,000 rubles of church wealth was paid back. In 1785 the Orthodox clergy did not receive a single seat in Catherine's legislative commission. By 1786, Catherine chose to simply exclude all religion and clerical studies programs from lay education.

The Eighth Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792) was a Russian victory over the Ottomans. Russia was revitalized under Catherine the Great's reign, growing larger and stronger than ever and becoming recognized as one of the great powers of Europe. In both her accession to power and in rule of her empire, Catherine often relied on her noble favourites, most notably Grigory Orlov and Grigory Potemkin. Assisted by highly successful generals such as Pyotr Rumyantsev and Alexander Suvorov, and admirals such as Fyodor Ushakov, she governed at a time when the Russian Empire was expanding rapidly by conquest and diplomacy. In the south, the Crimean Khanate was crushed following victories over the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish wars, and Russia colonised the vast territories of Novorossiya along the coasts of the Black and Azov Seas. In the west, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, ruled by Catherine's former lover, king Stanisław August Poniatowski, was eventually partitioned, with the Russian Empire gaining the largest share. In the east, Russia started to colonise Alaska, establishing Russian America.

Russian America was the name of Russian colonial possessions in the Americas up till 1867 that today is the US state of Alaska and settlements farther south in California. Formal incorporation of the possessions by Russia did not take place until an ukase (a proclamation or decree of the tsar) in 1799, which established a monopoly for the Russian-American Company and also granted the Russian Orthodox Church certain rights in the new possessions.

Inspired by the Jesuit's theology, the origins of which come from early religious explorers' need to adapt to the cultures of Antiquity, the Russian Orthodox Church missionaries in Russian America applied a strategy that placed value on local cultures and encouraged indigenous leadership in parish life and missionary activity. This cultural policy was originally intended to gain the loyalty of the indigenous populations by establishing the authority of Church and State as protectors of over 10,000 inhabitants of Russian America.

Catherine reformed the administration of Russian guberniyas, and many new cities and towns were founded on her orders. An admirer of Peter the Great, Catherine continued to modernise Russia along Western European lines. However, military conscription and economy continued to depend on serfdom, and the increasing demands of the state and private landowners led to increased levels of reliance on serfs. This was one of the chief reasons behind several rebellions, including the large-scale Pugachev's Rebellion of cossacks and peasants. The period of Catherine the Great's rule, the Catherinian Era, is often considered the Golden Age of the Russian Empire and the Russian nobility. The Manifesto on Freedom of the Nobility, issued during the short reign of Peter III and confirmed by Catherine, freed Russian nobles from compulsory military or state service. Construction of many mansions of the nobility, in the classical style endorsed by the Empress, changed the face of the country. A notable example of enlightened despot, a correspondent of Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet; French Enlightenment writer, historian and French philosopher). Catherine presided over the age of the Russian Enlightenment, when the Smolny Institute, the first state-financed higher education institution for women in Europe, was established.

The Russian-Anerican Company was chartered by Tsar Paul I in 1799. It was Russia's first joint stock company, and came under the direct authority of the Ministry of Commerce of Imperial Russia.

The Lewis and Clark Expedition, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross what is now the western portion of the United States, departing in May, 1804 from St. Louis on the Mississippi River, making their way westward through the continental divide to the Pacific coast. The expedition was commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson (third President of the United States 1801–1809) shortly after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, consisting of a select group of U.S. Army volunteers under the command of Captain Meriwether Lewis and his close friend Second Lieutenant William Clark.

The Ninth Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812) was a Russian victory over the Ottomans.

The War of 1812 was a 32-month military conflict between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, its North American colonies and its Indian allies. The outcome resolved many issues which remained from the American War of Independence, but involved no boundary changes. The United States declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions brought about by Britain's continuing war with France, the impressment of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy, British support of American Indian tribes against American expansion, outrage over insults to national honour after humiliations on the high seas, and possible American interest in annexing British North American territory (part of modern-day Canada) which had been denied to them in the settlement ending the American Revolutionary War.

The War of 1812 was fought in three principal theatres. Firstly, at sea, warships and privateers of each side attacked the other's merchant ships, while the British blockaded the Atlantic coast of the United States and mounted large-scale raids in the later stages of the war. Secondly, both land and naval battles were fought on the American–Canadian frontier, which ran along the Great Lakes, the Saint Lawrence River and the northern end of Lake Champlain. Thirdly, the American South and Gulf Coast also saw major land battles in which the American forces defeated Britain's Indian allies and a British invasion force at New Orleans. Some invasions or counter strikes were unsuccessful, while others successfully attacked enemy objectives and took possession of opposition territory. At the end of the war both sides signed the Treaty of Ghent, and all parties returned occupied land to its pre-war owner.

The Russo-American Treaty of 1824 (also known as the Convention Between the United States of America and His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russians, Relative to Navigating, Fishing, Etc., in the Pacific Ocean) was signed in St. Petersburg between representatives of Russia and the United States on April 17, 1824, ratified by both nations on January 11, 1825 and went into effect on January 12, 1825. The accord contained six articles. It gave Russian claims on the Pacific Northwest coast of North America south of parallel 54°40′ north over what Americans known as the Oregon Country to the United States.

The Anglo-Russian Treaty of 1825 between Russia and Great Britain then fixed the Russian Tsar's southernmost boundary of Alaska at the line of 54°40′N — the present southern tip of the Alaska Panhandle — but Russian rights to trade in the area south of that line remained. The dispute between the United States and Britain over jurisdiction in the region was already underway as a result of the Adams–Onís Treaty between the U.S. and Spain over the latter's former claims north of the 42nd Parallel (today's Oregon-California boundary).[1]

The Tenth Russo-Turkish War (1828-1829) was a victory over the Ottomans.


The Crimean War (October 1853 – February 1856) was a conflict in which Russia lost to an alliance of France, Britain, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia (Italy), sovereignty over Sardinia was claimed by the Papacy of the Roman Catholic Church.

On 17 March 1861, to more accurately reflect its new geographic extent, the Kingdom of Sardinia changed its name to the Kingdom of Italy, and its capital was eventually moved first to Florence then to Rome.


1. The rights of Catholic Christians in the Holy Land, which was controlled by the Ottoman Empire. 2. Russia rights to protect Russian Orthodox Christians and Jews in the Holy Land and in the Crimean Peninsula.

The French promoted the rights of Catholics, while Russia promoted those of the Eastern Orthodox. The longer-term causes involved the decline of the Ottoman Empire, and the unwillingness of Britain and France to allow Russia to gain territory and power at Ottoman expense. Russia lost and the Ottomans won, gaining a twenty-year respite from Russian pressure. The Ottomans granted Roman Catholic Christians a degree of official equality and the Eastern Orthodox gained control of Christian churches disputed by the Islamic Ottoman Empire.[2]

NOTEByzantium remained the capital of the Byzantine Empire until 1453 ADwhen it was conquered by the Muslims and became the capital of the Ottoman Empire

The wider struggle for control over the German-speaking peoples culminated in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866.

Prussia was a former kingdom of Germany. Originally a small country on the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea, it became a major European power, covering much of modern northeastern Germany and Poland, under Frederick the Great. After the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, it became the center of Bismarck's new German Empire.

The 12th Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of several Balkan countries. Fought in the Balkans and in the Caucasus, it originated in emerging 19th-century Balkan nationalism. Additional factors include the Russian hopes of recovering territorial losses suffered during the Crimean War, re-establishing itself in the Black Sea and supporting the political movement attempting to free Balkan nations from the Ottoman Empire.

In 1903 the Berar region of the Turkish-controlled Hyderābād State was separated and merged into the Central Provinces of British India, to form the Central Provinces and Berar.

Events leading up to World War I, and the Holy See Crusade to regain World Political Power

Cardinal Henry Edward Manning (1808 - 1892). Photograph: National Portrait Gallery

All Chronological Tables of the events leading up to WWI, including that published by the British Government, begin four days late. They all begin with the assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand of Austria at Serajevo, on June 28th 1914. Not one table informs us why the Archduke was shot. Not one mentions what happened at the Vatican on June 24th, four days before the Archduke was assassinated by the enraged Serbians. It is at this point that the hand of Rome comes in, as the arch-criminal who lit the match and started the European Conflagration.

The Serbian tragedy was only the final match which lit a long train long and skillfully laid by Rome and the German Emperor.

NOTE CARDINAL MANNING'S COUNTER-REFORMATION TACTICS AND WORDS IN 1874. Cardinal Henry Edward Manning, in 1874, spoke of the only way to restore the Pope's Temporal Power;---

"There is only one solution of the difficulty---a solution, I fear, impending---and that is the terrible scourge of Continental war, a war which will exceed the horrors of any of the wars of the First Empire. And it is my firm conviction that in spite of all obstacles the Vicar of Jesus Christ will be put again in his own rightful place. But that day will not be until his adversaries shall have crushed each other with mutual destruction." --- Tablet, January 24th, 1874.

World War I: Caucasus Campaign (1914–1918) was inconclusive. The Caucasus Campaign comprised armed conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, later including Azerbaijan, Armenia, the Central Caspian Dictatorship and the UK as part of the Middle Eastern theatre during World War I. The Caucasus Campaign extended from the Caucasus to the Eastern Asia Minor region, reaching as far as Trabzon, Bitlis, Muş and Van. The land warfare was accompanied by the Russian navy in the Black Sea Region of the Ottoman Empire.  The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Russian SFSR.

The tsarist autocracy refers to a form of autocracy (later, absolute monarchy) specific to the Grand Duchy of Muscovy (which later became Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire). In a tsarist autocracy, all power and wealth is controlled (and distributed) by the tsar.

The Russian Emperor was forced to abdicate and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar; the older Julian calendar was in use in Russia at the time). In the second revolution, during October, the Provisional Government was removed and replaced with a Bolshevik (Communist) government.

The February Revolution (March 1917) was a revolution focused around Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg). In the chaos, members of the Imperial parliament or Duma assumed control of the country, forming the Russian Provisional Government. The army leadership felt they did not have the means to suppress the revolution and Nicholas II, the last Emperor of Russia, abdicated. The Soviets (workers' councils), which were led by more radical socialist factions, initially permitted the Provisional Government to rule, but insisted on a prerogative to influence the government and control various militias. The February Revolution took place in the context of heavy military setbacks during the First World War (1914–18), which left much of the Russian army in a state of mutiny. A period of dual power ensued, during which the Provisional Government held state power while the national network of Soviets, led by socialists, had the allegiance of the lower classes and the political left. During this chaotic period there were frequent mutinies, protests and many strikes. When the Provisional Government chose to continue fighting the war with Germany, the Bolsheviks and other socialist factions campaigned for stopping the conflict. The Bolsheviks turned workers militias under their control into the Red Guards (later the Red Army) over which they exerted substantial control.

In the October [Russian] Revolution (November in the Gregorian calendar), the Bolshevik party, led by Vladimir Lenin, and the workers' Soviets, overthrew the Provisional Government in Petrograd. The Bolsheviks appointed themselves as leaders of various government ministries and seized control of the countryside, establishing the Cheka to quash dissent. To end Russia’s participation in the First World War, the Bolshevik leaders signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918. Prussia (a former kingdom of Germany) was abolished following Germany's defeat in World War I.


The Emirate of Transjordan, also hyphenated as Trans-Jordan and previously known as Transjordania or Trans-Jordania, was a British protectorate established in April 1921. The Hashemite dynasty ruled the protectorate as well as the neighbouring Mandatory Iraq, following the Cairo Conference. The territory was officially under the British Mandate for Palestine but had a fully autonomous governing system from Mandatory Palestine.

The original allotment for Israel was 45,560 square miles, under the League of Nations (the precursor to the United Nations), an area slightly smaller than the state of Pennsylvania.

In 1921, to appease the Arabs, King Abdullah I of Saudi Arabia was given Transjordan, which was 77 percent of the territory (35,125 square miles) that had been set aside as a homeland for the Jewish people.

The occupation of Constantinople and Smyrna by the Allies in the aftermath of World War I prompted the establishment of the Turkish National Movement.

Treaties of Sèvres and Lausanne

The Treaty of Sevres was a peace treaty concluded in 10th of August 1920 after World War I at Sevres, France, between the Ottoman Empire (Turkey), on the one hand, and the Allies (excluding Russia and the United States) on the other. The treaty, which liquidated the Ottoman Empire and virtually abolished Turkish sovereignty, followed in the main the decisions reached at San Remo.

In Asia, Turkey renounced sovereignty over Mesopotamia (Iraq) and Palestine (including Trans - Jordan), which became British mandates; Syria (including Lebanon), which became a French mandate; and the kingdom of Hejaz. Turkey retained Anatolia but was to grant autonomy to Kurdistan. Armenia became a separate republic under international guarantees, and Smyrna (modern Izmir) and its environs was placed under Greek administration pending a plebiscite to determine its permanent status.

In Europe, Turkey ceded parts of Eastern Thrace and certain Aegean islands to Greece, and the Dodecanese and Rhodes to Italy, retaining only Constantinople (modern Istanbul) and its environs, including the Zone of the Straits (Dardanelles and Bosphorus), which was neutralized and internationalized. The Allies further obtained virtual control over the Turkish economy with the capitulation rights.

The treaty was accepted by the government of Sultan Mehmed Vahdettin VI at Istanbul but was rejected by the rival nationalist government of Kemal Atatürk at Ankara. Atatürk's separate treaty with the USSR and his subsequent victories against the Greeks during the War of Independence forced the Allies to negotiate a new treaty in 1923 (Treaty of Lausanne).

Treaty of Lausanne

This treaty was signed on 24th of July 1923. The Sevres peace treaty imposed by the Allies on the Ottoman Empire after World War I had virtually destroyed Turkey as a national state. The treaty was not recognized by the nationalist government under Mustafa Kemal Pasha (later known as Atatürk). After the nationalist victory over the Greeks and the overthrow of the sultan during the War of Independence, Atatürk's government was in a position to request a new peace treaty. Accordingly, the signatories of the Treaty of Sevres and delegates of the USSR (excluded from the previous treaty) met at Lausanne, Switzerland. After lengthy negotiations a peace treaty was signed in 1923.

Turkey recovered Eastern Thrace, several Aegean islands, a strip along the Syrian border, the Smyrna (modern Izmir) district, and the internationalized Zone of the Straits (Bosphorus and Dardanelles), which, however, was to remain demilitarized and remain subject to an international convention. Turkey recovered full sovereign rights over all its territory, and foreign zones of influence and capitulations were abolished. Outside the Zone of the Straits, no limitation was imposed on the Turkish military establishment. No reparations were exacted.

The Treaty of Lausanne of 24 July 1923 led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed "Republic of Turkey" as the continuing state of the Ottoman Empire, and the republic was officially proclaimed on 29 October 1923 in Ankara, the country's new capital.

Since the establishment of modern Turkey in 1923, the Turkish name of the city, Istanbul, has replaced the name Constantinople in the West. As a result, the Muslims were allowed to occupy Turkey, and the Catholics were allowed to occupy Lebanon in the Arab world.

It was also agreed that the Muslims could build mosques in Catholic countries without interference as long as Roman Catholicism could flourish in Arab countries.  The Vatican engineered a campaign of hatred between the Muslim Arabs and the Jews. Before this, Jews and Muslims had co-existed peacefully in the Middle East.

The Lausanne treaty stipulated a population exchange between Greece and Turkey, whereby 1.1 million Greeks left Turkey for Greece in exchange for 380,000 Muslims transferred from Greece to Turkey. In 1946, the Emirate of Transjordan became an independent state. The state was renamed to Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

In 1947, at the time of the partition of India, Britain offered the 566 princely states in the sub-Indian continent the option of acceding to either India or Pakistan, or remaining independent. Hyderabad was the largest and most prosperous of all princely states in India. It covered 82,698 square miles (214,190 km2) of fairly homogeneous territory and had a population of roughly 16.34 million people (as per the 1941 census), of which a majority (85%) was Hindu.

Seven Nizams ruled Hyderabad for two centuries until 1947. The Asaf Jahi rulers were great patrons of literature, art, architecture, and culture, and rich food. The Nizams patronized Persian art, Persian architecture and Persian culture, which became central to the Hyderabadi Muslim identity. At the same time, it must be duly noted that Asif Jahi rulers especially Nawab Mir Mahboob Ali Khan Bahadur and 8th Nizam - Nawab Mir Osman Ali Khan Bahadur took very good care of their Hindu subjects.

Hyderabad State had its own army, airline, telecommunication system, railway network, postal system, currency and radio broadcasting service. The Nizam decided to keep Hyderabad independent because it was geographically impossible to join Pakistan.

The Hyderābād State was located in the south-central region of the Indian subcontinent, and was ruled by the British East India Trading Company, from 1724 until 1948.

KABUL, Afghanistan — The effort to win over Afghans on former Taliban turf in Marja has put American and NATO commanders in the unusual position of arguing against opium eradication, pitting them against some Afghan officials who are pushing to destroy the harvest---according to the NY Times... 

From General Stanley A. McChrystal on down, the military’s position is clear: “U.S. forces no longer eradicate,” as one NATO official put it. Opium is the main livelihood of 60 to 70 percent of the farmers in Marja. American Marines occupying the area are under orders to leave the farmers’ fields alone.

Opium has many derivatives, including morphine, codeine, oxycodone, and heroin, and the East India Trading Company is not going to run the risk of loosing its pharmaceutical and "street drug" cash crop.

Sanjiv Mehta, a Mumbai-born entrepreneur and Chairman at Unilever - North Africa and Middle East (United Arab Emirates, Consumer Goods) completed the process of buying the East India Company (EIC) in 2005 from the "30 or 40" people who owned it.

United Arab Emirates’ (UAE) economy is primarily dependent on oil and opium export. However, in recent years the country has also diversified its economy into various other sectors including tourism, construction and consumer goods.

Unilever (Euronext: UNA, LSE: ULVR) is an Anglo–Dutch multinational consumer goods company. Its products include foods, beverages, cleaning agents and personal care products. It is the world's third-largest consumer goods company measured by 2011 revenues (after Procter & Gamble and Nestlé).

...and the United States by and "for" 
should Not be a perpetual 
April Fool's Day joke!

The original Constitution of the United States WAS, WAS, the supreme law of the land that went into effect on March 4, 1789. But did you know that there has been Two (2) United States of America since the late 19th century? One is a private corporation controlled by international merchants and bankers, and the other is the Republic that was created by and "for" WE THE PEOPLE.

The District of Columbia Organic Act of 1871 was An Act of Congress to provide a privatized Government for Washington, the District of Columbia. The Act formed the corporation known as “THE UNITED STATES.”

What Congress did with the passage of the Act of 1871 was change our Constitution in the sense that the title was block-capitalized and the word "for" was changed to the word "of" in the title. In essence, Congress changed the United States Constitution to serve “CORPORATE AMERICA,” and their international banking and merchant partners.

Under U.S. Code Title 28 section 3002, paragraph (15), parts (a)(b)(c) “United States” means:

(A) a Federal corporation;

(B) an agency, department, commission, board, or other entity of the United States; or

(C) an instrumentality of "THE UNITED STATES."

Ironically the word, “instrumentality” means; “the fact or quality of serving as an instrument or means to an end.”

NOTE: A corporate body can act only through the instrumentality of human beings (Congress)!

The United States of America (USA)—commonly referred to as Americais supposed to be a federal republic consisting of 50 states and a federal district. Supposedly, the 48 contiguous states and the federal district of Washington, D.C., are in central North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is the northwestern part of North America and the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The European Outpost (pseudo country or nation) also has five populated and nine unpopulated territories in the Pacific and the Caribbean. At 3.79 million square miles in total and with around 317 million people, the United States of America is the fourth-largest colony by total area and third largest by population.

When you say the Pledge of Allegianceyou are swearing allegiance to the Federal City (CORPORATION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA), and the Federal flag of Admiralty (the department of the British East India Trading Company that once administered the Royal Navy).

Now you understand why our supposed leaders trample on the U.S. Constitution that was meant to protect WE THE PEOPLE from oppression.


An Apostolic Nunciature is a top-level diplomatic mission of the Holy See, equivalent to an embassy. There are 181 Apostolic Nunciature worldwide ranging from Albania to Zambia.

A papal nuncio (officially known as an Apostolic nuncio) is a permanent diplomatic representative (head of diplomatic mission) of the Holy See to a state or international organization such as the Arab League, having the rank of an ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary, usually with the ecclesiastical rank of titular archbishop.

In 1948, the Vatican created the office of Apostolic Delegate to Jerusalem and Palestine, which had jurisdiction in British Mandate Palestine, Transjordan (now Jordan) and Cyprus.

The Vatican signed a bilateral agreement with the terrorist Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in February 2000.

In the bilateral agreement signed between the Vatican and the Palestine Liberation Organization, the PLO recognizes the rights of the Catholic Church to exercise her rights to carry out, through the necessary means, her functions and Tradition in Israel and elsewhere, under Article 5.

Furthermore, the PLO recognizes the rights of the Catholic Church in economic, legal and fiscal matters in Israel, under Article 6---these rights being exercised in harmony with the rights of the Palestinian authorities in these fields.


President Obama, who worked for the Roman Catholic Church while a supposed community organizer in Chicagomay want to insist that America is not a Christian nation. But either that kind of talk is biting the hand that fed him, or simply a deceptive agenda to fool Roman Catholics and others into believing that the Vatican and Archdiocese of Washington, DC, does not pull the strings on the world!

It was the Catholic Fund for Human Development (CHD) grant to a Chicago neighborhood, after all, that brought Barack Hussein Obama II to Chicago and gave him a room in a Catholic rectory. Barack Hussein Obama II was hired in Chicago as the first executive director of the Developing Communities Project (DCP), a Roman Catholic community organization originally comprising 8 parishes in Roseland, West Pullman, and Riverdale on Chicago's South Side.

Catholic Fund for Human Development (CHD) is an agency of The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB).

RAMALLAH --- JUNE 26, 2012 --- Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas received at the presidential seat in Ramallah, Archbishop Antonio Franco, Apostolic Delegate in Jerusalem and the Palestinian Territories, with his accompanying delegation. Ramallah is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank located 10 km north of Jerusalem.


Recently, the Vatican hailed with favor the decision of the UN General Assembly by which Palestine has become a Non-member Observer State in November 2012. (SOURCE: Reuters: Vatican Hails UN Palestinian State Vote, Calls For Special Status For Jerusalem By Philip Pullella, 11/29/2012).


The internationally recognized PLO Fatah government in the West Bank renamed itself, "THE STATE OF PALESTINE."

The Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter was established on January 1, 2012, for former Anglicans to join the Catholic Church.[3]

The Vatican and the UN under resolution 181 and 194, want to make Jerusalem an international city controlled by and International Regime, such as the Vatican

Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (1828–1910), also known as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer who primarily wrote novels and short stories. Tolstoy was a master of realistic fiction and is widely considered one of the world's greatest novelists. He is best known for two long novels, War and Peace (1869) and Anna Karenina (1877). Tolstoy first achieved literary acclaim in his 20s with his semi-autobiographical trilogy of novels, Childhood, Boyhood, and Youth (1852-1856) and Sevastopol Sketches (1855), based on his experiences in the Crimean War.

I just wish that my mentor since age 11, the late Dan Di Nicola, a 30-plus year veteran for the Schenectady Gazette newspaper and WRGB Channel 6, and Russian and British literature teacher at Niskayuna High School in Upstate, NY (who was working on an investigative book about Tolstoy's War and Peace when he was diagnosed with a brain tumor in 2008, and later died) could be alive today to expose the perpetual April Fool's Day joke on America.

WE THE PEOPLE and the original U.S. Constitution of the United States FOR America should Not be a perpetual April Fool's Day joke!

Godspeed, love and Truth,

Brother David Johnson, XU

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