Stay Away from Indoctrination and Dogma

"As a result, we are no longer to be children, tossed here and there by waves and carried about by every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, by craftiness in deceitful scheming;" (Ephesians 4:14 NASB).

Saturday, December 14, 2013

Did the Early Church of Rome Create the Islamic Religion

Arafat and Pope John Paul II. The Palestine Authority (PLO) wants the Church of the Nativity to be the world’s 1st heritage site, and now they also say that nearby Rachel’s Tomb is a mosque
**** Did the first Four Caliphs after Muhammad come from the House of Ghassan --- the Arab clan that defeated Muhammad and his troops fighting along side the Roman Byzantine Empire in The Battle of Mu'tah in AD 629?

Muhammad died in AD 632 as a result of being poisoned.

Regardless of religious convictions, agnostic or atheistic views, people should research the history of Islam, and how it came into existence in the 7th century AD in relation to the Roman catholic Emperors. 

In AD 788, the Avars, a pagan Asian horde that had settled down in what is today Hungary (Einhard called them Huns), invaded Friuli and Bavaria. Charlemagne marched down the Danube and ravaged Avar territory to the Győr. A Lombard army under his son, Pippin, then marched into the Drava valley and ravaged Pannonia. An Angrian rebellion followed in 796, but the presence of Charlemagne, "Christian" Saxons and Slavs quickly crushed it. Charlemagne accepted their surrender and sent one native chief, baptised Abraham, back to Avaria with the ancient title of khagan (a title of imperial rank in the Mongolian and Turkic languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate (empire). This established the Church of Rome and Charlemagne's bi-lateral relationship with Muslims and the caliphal court in Baghdad. In AD 797, the caliph of Baghdad, Harun al-Rashid, presented Charlemagne with an Asian elephant named Abul-Abbas and a clock. [7a] The presents were carried by the returning Frankish mission that came to offer Harun friendship in AD 799.

Harun al-Rashid fantasized about the The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (compiled in Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age—often known in English as the Arabian Nights, from the first English language edition (1706)), which contains many stories back to ancient and medieval Arabic, Persian, Indian, Egyptian and Mesopotamian folklore and literature. Harun al-Rashid himself established the legendary library Bayt al-Hikma ("House of Wisdom") in Baghdad (modern-day IRAQ), and during his rule Baghdad began to flourish as a center of knowledge, culture and trade.

Please keep an open mind and ask yourself why Evangelical Christians and Jews have been attacked in the Middle East, and Jewish synagogues destroyed in Israel, while Roman Catholic churches have Not been destroyed since the 12th century.

BRIEF ROMAN HISTORY TO THE TIME OF MUHAMMAD 
AND BEGINNINGS OF ISLAM

The priesthoods of public religion were held by members of the elite classes. There was no principle analogous to "separation of church and state" in ancient Rome. Sol was the solar deity in Ancient Roman religion. It was long thought that Rome actually had two different, consecutive sun gods. The first, Sol Indiges, was thought to have been unimportant, disappearing altogether at an early period. Only in the late Roman Empire, scholars argued, did solar cult re-appear with the arrival in Rome of the Syrian Sol Invictus, perhaps under the influence of the Mithraic Roman religion.


Until the age of Constantine, Jupiter was the chief deity of Roman state religion throughout the Republican and Imperial eras. For ordinary Romans, religion was a part of daily life. The presence of Greeks on the Italian peninsula from the beginning of the historical period influenced Roman culture, introducing some religious practices that became as fundamental as the Cult of Apollo—recognized as a god of light and the sun. Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu. In Hellenistic times, especially during the 3rd century BC, as Apollo Helios he became identified among Greeks with Helios, Titan god of the sun, and his sister, Artemis, similarly equated with Selene, Titan goddess of the moon. 

When the Roman Emperor Hadrian vowed to rebuild Jerusalem from the wreckage in AD 130, he considered reconstructing Jerusalem as a gift for the Jewish people. The Jews awaited with hope, but then after Hadrian visited Jerusalem, he decided to rebuild the city as a Roman colony which would be inhabited by his legionnaires.[1] Hadrian's new plans included temples to the major regional deities, and certain Roman gods, in particular Jupiter Capitolinus, which led to the Bar Kokhba revolt of AD 132–136 (the third and the last of the Jewish–Roman wars). Hadrian renamed Jerusalem Aelia Capitolina from his nomen gentile, Aelius, while Capitolina meant that the new city was dedicated to Jupiter Capitolinus, to whom a temple was built on the site of the former Jewish temple, the Temple Mount. According to historian Eusebius (c. AD 264–340), the early Jerusalem Christian church was scattered twice, in AD 70 and AD 135, with the difference that from 70-130 the bishops of Jerusalem have evidently Jewish names, whereas after 135 the bishops of Aelia Capitolina appear to be Greeks.[2] Once the Jerusalem Christian church, still headed by Jesus' relatives, was eliminated during the Bar Kokhba revolt, the Ebionites, and elite Jewish-Christian sect were forced out of Jerusalem by the Romans. Ebionites migrated to Jordan, Medina and Hejaz, Saudi Arabia. The Latin name Aelia is the source of the Arabic term Iliyā'—an early Arabic name for Jerusalem.



Constantine the Great (c. 272 AD - 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was Roman Emperor from 306 to 337. Constantine was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman army officer, and his consort Helena. His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west in 293. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under the emperors Diocletian and Galerius. Constantine decided to work on the Greek city of Byzantium, which offered the advantage of having already been extensively rebuilt on Roman patterns of urbanism, during the preceding century, by Septimius Severus and Caracalla, who had already acknowledged its strategic importance. The city was thus founded in 324 AD, and was dedicated on 11 May 330, and renamed Constantinopolis ("Constantine's City" or Constantinople in English). Special commemorative coins were issued in AD 330 to honor the event. The “New City” was protected by the relics of the “True Cross,” the Rod of Moses and other holy relics.

The True Cross is the name for physical remnants which, by a Roman Catholic Tradition, are believed to be from the cross upon which Jesus was crucified. According to post-Nicene (325 AD) historians such as Socrates Scholasticus, the Empress Helena, mother of Constantine I travelled to the Holy Land in 326–28 AD.

Historians Gelasius of Caesarea and Rufinus claimed that she discovered the hiding place of three crosses that were believed to be used at the crucifixion of Jesus and of the two thieves executed with him, and that a miracle revealed which of the three was the True Cross that Jesus was crucified on.

2 Timothy 4:1-3
New Living Translation (NLT)

4 I solemnly urge you in the presence of God and Christ Jesus, who will someday judge the living and the dead when he appears to set up his Kingdom: 2 Preach the word of God. Be prepared, whether the time is favorable or not. Patiently correct, rebuke, and encourage your people with good teaching. 

3 For a time is coming when people will no longer listen to sound and wholesome teaching. They will follow their own desires and will look for teachers who will tell them whatever their itching ears want to hear.

[Divinely inspired and written by the Apostle Paul of Tarsus in AD 67]

Constantine built the "new Church of the Holy Apostles" on the site of a temple to Aphrodite, and a new imperial residence at Byzantium. The capital would often be compared to the 'old' Rome as Nova Roma Constantinopolitana, the "New Rome of Constantinople." However, in Constantine's honor, the Romans called it Constantinople, which would later be the capital of what is now known as the Byzantine Empire for over one thousand years. Because of this, he is thought of as the founder of the Byzantine Empire.

Latin Rite Catholics considered it inappropriate that Constantine was baptized only on his death-bed and by an unorthodox bishop, as it undermined the authority of the Papacy. Hence, by the early fourth century, a legend had emerged that Pope Sylvester I (314–35 AD) had cured the pagan emperor from leprosy. According to this legend, Constantine was soon baptized, and began the construction of palaces for the Popes, and a church in the Lateran PalaceNOTE:  Adjacent to the cathedral Church of Rome, The Lateran Palace houses the offices of the Pope, as well as the residential apartments of the Cardinal Vicar ("Vicar General of His Holiness"), the Pope's delegate for the daily administration of the Diocese of Rome.

Constantine's political legacy was that, in leaving the empire to his sons, he replaced Diocletian's tetrarchy with the principle of dynastic succession.

From the early 4th century onwards the Roman Emperors became puppets 
of the Papacy and Church of Rome

Constantine the Great implemented the word, "catholic" at the Council of Nicaea (325 AD) to supplant the underground Christina movement.

Julian (Latin: Flavius Claudius Julianus Augustus, c. 331 AD  – 363 AD), also known as Julian the Apostate, as well as Julian the Philosopher, was Roman Emperor from 361 AD to 363 AD. A member of the Constantinian dynasty, Julian became Caesar over the western provinces in 355 AD by order of Constantius II (Roman Emperor from 337 to 361 AD, and the second son of Constantine I). In this role, Julian, campaigned successfully against the Alamanni and Franks. Most notable was his crushing victory over the Alamanni in 357 AD at the Battle of Argentoratum despite being outnumbered. In 360 AD, in Lutetia (Paris), Julian was acclaimed Augustus by his soldiers, sparking a civil war between Julian and Constantius II.

Before the two could face each other in battle, however, Constantius II died. In 363 AD, Julian embarked on an ambitious campaign against the Sassanid Empire. Though initially successful, Julian was mortally wounded in battle and died shortly thereafter.

THE CHURCH OF ROME DOWNPLAYED THE HOLY BIBLE AS THE DIVINE WORD OF GOD
AND THE BIRTH OF THE ISLAMIC RELIGION

Augustine of Hippo (aka Saint Augustine and St. Austin), was born in Roman Africa (now Souk Ahras, Algeria) circa 354 AD.  In 391 AD, Augustine was ordained a priest in Hippo Regius, the ancient Roman name of the modern city of Annaba, in Algeria, Africa. He became a famous preacher, and was noted for combating the Manichaean heresy (a major Gnostic religion that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (c. 216–276 AD) in the Sasanian Persian Empire. Theodosius I divided the Empire upon his death (c. 395 AD) between his two sons. Finally, eighty-five years later, Emperor Zeno of the Eastern Court recognized the reality of the Western Empire's reduced domain (Imperial control had been lost even in the Italian Peninsula) after the death of Western Emperor Julius Nepos. Theodosius I proclaimed himself sole emperor of the Roman Empire.

In 396, Augustine was made coadjutor bishop of Hippo (assistant with the right of succession on the death of the current bishop), and remained as Bishop in Hippo until his death in 430 AD.

Augustine of Hippo allegorized all the Holy Scriptures, and the 5th century early Roman "Christian" Church adopted his teachings.

St. Augustine’s writings influenced the Ghassanids.



The prophet Muhammad (c. 570 – c. 632 AD ) was taught the works of the 4th century theologian Saint Augustine. Muhammad was born in Mecca. His family was part of the Hashimdan of the powerful Kudaish Federation. Muhammad’s parents died shortly after his birth.

Waraka (or Waraqah) ibn Nawfal was the paternal first cousin of Khadija, the first wife of the prophet Muhammad. Waraka was also Muhammad's paternal third cousin once removed: Waraka's grandfather Asad ibn Abd-al-Uzza (son of Abd al-Uzza ibn Qusai) was nephew of Muhammad's great-great-grandfather Abd Manaf ibn Qusai. Around this time, Waraka, with another member of his tribe, is said to have found Muhammad as a young infant. According to the Islamic sources, Waraka was an Ebionite priest living in Mecca [3], who read Hebrew, and one who had made detailed studies of the Old and New Testament Gospels of the Holy Bible. Ebionites, or Ebionaioi (derived from Hebrew ebyonim, ebionim, meaning "the poor" or "poor ones"), is a patristic term referring to a "Jewish Christian" movement that existed during the early centuries of the Roman catholic Era.[4] They regarded Jesus of Nazareth as the Messiah while rejecting His divinity[5] and insisted on the necessity of following Jewish law and rites. The Ebionites reject the Apostle Paul of Tarsus as an apostate from the Law.

At age 24, Muhammad married, Khadija, a wealthy widow, and he became a prosperous merchant in Mecca. The Battle of Mu'tah was fought in AD 629 the village of Mu'tah, east of the Jordan River. The Battle of Mu'tah was fought in AD 629 near the village of Mu'tah, east of the Jordan River. Muhammad raised the largest army against the Ghassanids, a non-Meccan confederate force. This was Muhammad’s first battle with the Byzantines [6]. Emperor Heraclius gathered an army and hurried to the aid of his Arab allies, and the forces of Muhammad were defeated.

Cherub (of Ezekiel's vision) and Byzantine Emperor Heraclius receiving the submission of the Sassanid king Khosrau II; plaque from a cross. Champlevé enamel over gilt copper (found c. 1160-1170 in Meuse Valley, France).
Heraclius (Latin: Flavius Heraclius Augustus, c. 575 – February 11, 641) was Byzantine Emperor from 610 to 641 AD. He was responsible for introducing Greek as the Eastern Empire's official language. Heraclius's reign was marked by several military campaigns. The year Heraclius came to power, the empire was threatened on multiple frontiers. Heraclius immediately took charge of the ongoing war against the Sassanids. The first battles of the campaign ended in defeat for the Byzantines; the Persian army fought their way to the Bosphorus; however, because Constantinople was protected by impenetrable walls and a strong navy, Heraclius was able to avoid total defeat. Soon after, he initiated reforms to rebuild and strengthen the military. Heraclius drove the Persians out of Asia Minor and pushed deep into their territory, defeating them decisively in 627 at the Battle of Nineveh. The Persian king Khosrau II was overthrown and executed soon after and peace was restored to the two deeply strained empires.

Heraclius took for himself the ancient Persian title of "King of Kings" after his victory over Persia. Later on, starting in 629, he styled himself as Basileus, the Greek word for "Sovereign,", and that title was used by the Roman Emperors for the next 800 years.

Muhammad died in AD 632 as a result of being poisoned following his attack upon and conquest of the Jewish settlement of Khaibar. Muhammad did not read or write, but Islamic tradition states he verbalized the Qur’an (Koran). [-]

The Formation of The Papal States

The ongoing struggle between the rising Papacy and the retreating Roman Empire led the Pope to unilaterally declare the Frankish King Charlemagne to be the successor of the Western Emperors, and "King of the Romans" on Christmas Day in 800 AD. This new imperial line would evolve in time into the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (which lasted till 1806).

By 751, the Merovingian dynasty, which until then had ruled the Germanic Franks by right, was deprived of this right with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy, and a Carolingian, Pepin the Short (the younger son of the Frankish prince Charles Martel), was crowned by Pope Zachary King of the Franks. As King, Pepin embarked on an ambitious program to expand his power. He reformed the legislation of the Franks and continued the ecclesiastical reforms of Boniface. Pepin also intervened in favor of the Papacy of Stephen II against the Lombards in Italy. He was able to secure several cities, which he then gave to the Pope as part of the Donation of Pepin. This formed the legal basis for the Papal States in the Middle Ages. The Byzantines, keen to make good relations with the growing power of the Frankish empire, gave Pepin the title of Patricius.

Charles Iwas the King of the Franks from AD 768the King of Italy from AD 774and the first emperor in western Europe since the collapse of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. He re-established the Church of Rome as a world power influencing Merovingian kings. In AD 751, Pippin III, Mayor of the Palace under the Merovingian king, himself assumed the title of king and was anointed by the Church of Rome. Now the Frankish kings were set up as protectors of the Popeand "Charles the Greataka Charlemagne, launched a decades-long military campaign against their rivals, the Saxons of Germany, the Moors and the Avars.

In AD 788, the Avars, a pagan Asian horde that had settled down in what is today Hungary (Einhard called them Huns), invaded Friuli and Bavaria. Charlemagne marched down the Danube and ravaged Avar territory to the Győr. A Lombard army under his son, Pippin, then marched into the Drava valley and ravaged Pannonia. An Angrian rebellion followed in 796, but the presence of Charlemagne, "Christian" Saxons and Slavs quickly crushed it. Charlemagne accepted their surrender and sent one native chief, baptised Abraham, back to Avaria with the ancient title of khagan (a title of imperial rank in the Mongolian and Turkic languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate (empire). This established the Church of Rome and Charlemagne's bi-lateral relationship with Muslims and the caliphal court in Baghdad. In AD 797, the caliph of Baghdad, Harun al-Rashid, presented Charlemagne with an Asian elephant named Abul-Abbas and a clock. [7a] The presents were carried by the returning Frankish mission that came to offer Harun friendship in AD 799.

Harun al-Rashid fantasized about the The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (compiled in Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age—often known in English as the Arabian Nights, from the first English language edition (1706)), which contains many stories back to ancient and medieval Arabic, Persian, Indian, Egyptian and Mesopotamian folklore and literature. Harun al-Rashid himself established the legendary library Bayt al-Hikma ("House of Wisdom") in Baghdad (modern-day IRAQ), and during his rule Baghdad began to flourish as a center of knowledge, culture and trade.

THE MOON GOD MARRIES THE SUN GOD:

The Ghassanids were a group of South Arabian pseduo "Christian tribes" that emigrated in the early 3rd century from Yemen to the Hauran in Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and the Holy Land where some intermarried with Hellenized Roman settlers and early indigenous Greek-speaking Christian communities of the region. The term Ghassān refers to the kingdom of the Ghassanids, an ancient Christian kingdom in the Levant, that was a client state to the Eastern Roman and Byzantine Empire. They fought alongside the Byzantine Empire against the Persian Sassanids and North Arabian Lakhmids. After the fall of the first kingdom, the Ghassanid Dynasty ruled other realms, both Christian and Muslim, until 1747 AD in Mount Lebanon.[7] [-]


Babylon Fortress was an ancient fortress city or castle in the Delta of Egypt, located at Babylon in the area today known as Coptic Cairo.

The word, "Coptic" refers to the language of the Copts (a native Egyptian in the Hellenistic and Roman periods), which represents the final stage of ancient Egyptian. It now survives only as the liturgical language of the Coptic Church.

The Greek historian Ctesias (5th Century BC) in his 23 volume Persica, dates Babylon Fortress to the time of Semiramis (the wicked wife of Nimrod the master mason and builder of the Tower of Babel); but the Jewish historian Josephus ( c. AD 37– c. AD 100), attributes the fort’s structure to Babylonian followers of the Persian King Cambyses (529-522 BC).

Cairo, Egypt is 265 miles from Jerusalem, Israel, which is located at 35.22 degrees longitude, and 31.78 latitude.

In the age of Augustus the Deltaic Babylon became a town of some importance, and was the headquarters of the three legions of Roman soldiers, which ensured the obedience of Egypt.

As time went by, the power of Islam became tremendous. Jews and Evangelical Christians were slaughtered, and Jerusalem fell into the hands of the Arabs. Roman Catholics were never attacked, nor were their shrines, during this time. But when the Pope asked for Jerusalem, he was surprised at the Arabs denial! The Arab generals had such military success that they could not be intimidated by the Pope - nothing could stand in the way of their own plan.

During the Arab invasion of Egypt the fort was surrounded for about seven months before finally falling in April 641 to Arab General 'Amr ibn al-'As (c. 592 – January 6, 664). General 'Amr ibn al-'As built the first mosque in Egypt and in all of Africa. Over the following centuries, most of the Eastern Roman Empire came under Muslim rule.

The prophet Muhammad claimed he had a vision from Allah that he was a prophet. However, history proves that before Islam came into existence, the Sabeans in Arabia worshiped the moon-god, who was married to the sun-god. The myth was that theses two gods gave birth to three goddesses who were worshipped throughout the Arab world as "Daughters of Allah."



Sin or Nanna (Sumerian: DŠEŠ.KI, DNANNA) was the god of the moon in the Mesopotamian mythology of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia. Nanna is a Sumerian deity, the son of Enlil and Ninlil, and became identified with Semitic Sin. The two chief seats of Nanna's/Sin's worship were Ur in the south of Mesopotamia and Harran in the north. Impression of the cylinder seal of Ḫašḫamer, ensi (high priest) of Sin at Iškun-Sin ca. 2100 BC. The seated figure is probably king Ur-Nammu, bestowing the governorship on Ḫašḫamer, who is led before him by a lamma (protective goddess).

Sin/Nanna himself is present in the form of a crescent moon. The well-known Middle East scholar H.A.R. Gibb has pointed out that the reason that Muhammad never had to explain who Allah was in the Quran is that his listeners had already heard about Allah long before Muhammad was ever born (Mohammedanism: An Historical Survey, New York: Mentor Books, 1955, p.38).

Allah was the name of the principal deity in Mecca who had three daughters (S53:19/20): Uzzah; Lat; and Manat. According to their traditions they acted as Allah's INTERCESSORS.

The Goddesses Al-Uzza, Al-Lat and Manat formed a triad in pre-Islamic Arabia. The three were worshipped as uncut iconic stones, and were very popular goddesses with the Quraish of Mecca at the time of Muhammad.

Al-Uzza, "the Strong One," the virgin warrior and youngest in the triad of goddesses was one of the most venerated Arab deities, and the goddess of the morning and evening star, the planet Venus and was a blood-thirsty goddess which requires sacrifices; both animal and human. She has much in common with Ishtar and Astarte as Morning and Evening Star goddesses—they all have aspects of both Love and War goddess, and big cats were sacred to them—she was associated by the Greeks with Aphrodite. Al-Lat, whose name is a contraction of al-Illahat, "the Goddess," and Al-Uzza were sometimes confused, and it seems that as one gained in popularity in one area the other's popularity diminished. Their symbol was also the crescent moon.

Dr. Arthur Jeffery, one of the foremost Western Islamic scholars in modern times and professor of Islamic and Middle East Studies at Columbia University, notes: “The name Allah, as the Quran itself is witness, was well known in pre-Islamic Arabia. Indeed, both it and its feminine form, Allat, are found not infrequently among the theophorous names in inscriptions from North Africa” (Islam: Muhammad, and His Religion, New York: The Liberal Arts Press, 1958, p. 85). The word “Allah” comes from the compound Arabic wordal-ilah. Al is the definite article “the” and ilah is an Arabic word for “god.” It is not a foreign word. It is not even the Syriac word for God. It is pure Arabic. (There is an interesting discussion of the origins of Allah, in “Arabic Lexicographical Miscellanies” by J. Blau in the Journal of Semitic Studies, Vol. XVII, #2, 1972, pp. 173-190).

PROPAGANDA RELIGIOUS GUIDE BOOKS

Brandon Toropov is a Massachussets-based writer, who has written a variety of non-fiction titles including The Complete Idiot's Guide to Taosim (with Chad Hansen), and The Complete's Idiot's Guide® to the Koran (with Shaykh Muhammad Sarwar).

Father Luke Buckles is a member of the Order of Preachers (OP), and an adjuct professor of theology at the Dominican School of Philosophy and Theology, Graduate Theological Union, in Berkley's California (a constituting school of the Jesuit School of Theology at Berkeley).

Father Luke Buckles (OP) completed his doctorate studies at the University of St. Thomas Acquinas in Rome, and has been teaching in the area of Roman Catholic spirituality and interfaith dialogue since 1985. However both of the above authors did a travesty of justice with the The Complete Idiot’s Guide to World Religions.


The book "The Complete Idiot’s Guide to World Religions," 4th Edition, page 115, written by Brandon Toropov and Father Luke Buckles of the Dominican Order (Alpha/Penguin Group, 2011), attempts to persuade its readers to better understand the Islamic religion. But the “…World Religions” fails to mention the name of Muhammad’s wife—except for that she was a wealthy widow—and that Muhammad was from the Hashim clan. That alone is suspect [-] when you take into account that ancestry was very important amongst the clans and Romans.  “…World Religions” only mentions that Muhammad was raised by his uncle, but does not mention Muhammad’s uncle’s name. 

"The Complete Idiot’s Guide to World Religions" mentions Muhammad's battles and wars. But does Not mention The Battle of Mu'tah, the Ghassanids (the non-Meccan confederate force) and Muhammad’s first battle with the Byzantines or Roman Emperor Heraclius. The authors of "The Complete Idiot’s Guide to World Religions" must think people are really idiots!


Revelation 18:4  (NIV)

Warning to Escape Babylon’s Judgment

4 Then I heard another voice from heaven say:

“‘Come out of her, my people,’[a]
    so that you will not share in her sins,
    so that you will not receive any of her plagues;

Footnotes:
Revelation 18:4 Jeremiah 51:45

Allah is a purely an Arabic term used in reference to an Arabian deity. Hastings’ Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics I:326, T & T Clark, states:

”Allah” is a proper name, applicable only to their [Arabs'] peculiar God."‘


An idol excavated at Hazor in Palestine in 1950's shows Allah sitting on a throne with the crescent moon on his chest and three other idols---consistent with the Arab myth "Daughters of Allah." Mohammed's father (Abd-allah), for example, had Allah as part of his name.

According to the Encyclopedia of Religion:

‘”Allah” is a pre-Islamic name . . . corresponding to the Babylonian Bel’ (Encyclopedia of Religion, I:117 Washington DC, Corpus Pub., 1979).

Bel had all the attributes of Marduk, and his status and cult were much the same. Marduk, in Mesopotamian religion, the chief god of the city of Babylon and the national god of Babylonia; as such, he was eventually called simply Bel, or Lord. Marduk’s star was Jupiter, and his sacred animals were horses, dogs, and especially the so-called dragon with forked tongue, representations of which adorn his city’s walls. On the oldest monuments Marduk is represented holding a triangular spade or hoe, interpreted as an emblem of fertility and vegetation. He is also pictured walking or in his war chariot. Typically, his tunic is adorned with stars; in his hand is a sceptre, and he carries a bow, spear, net, or thunderbolt. Kings of Assyria and Persia also honoured Marduk and Zarpanitu in inscriptions and rebuilt many of their temples. Marduk was later known as Bel, a name derived from the Semitic word baal, or “lord.”  Bel, however, gradually came to be thought of as the god of order and destiny (Encyclopædia Britannica).

Pagan carving of the solar diety Baal-Hadad depicted as a disk in a crescent
Shamash (Akkadian Šamaš "Sun"), was a native Mesopotamian deity and the sun god in the Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian pantheons. Shamash was the god of justice in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu.

Both in early and in late inscriptions Shamash is designated as the "offspring of Nannar"; i.e. of the moon-god, and since, in an enumeration of the pantheon, Sin generally takes precedence of Shamash, it is in relationship, presumably, to the moon-god that the sun-god appears as the dependent power.

The Star of Ishtar

Because some astronomical objects move through the sky in repeated and known intervals of time, the behavior of the celestial gods associated with them can be symbolized numerically. References to Venus as early as 3000 BC are known from evidence at Uruk, an important early Sumerian city in southern Iraq. One clay tablet found at the site says "star Inanna," and another contains symbols for the words "star, setting sun, Inanna." Inanna is Venus, known later as Ishtar, and the Uruk tablets specify her celestial identity with the symbol for "star": an eight-pointed star. Right you see a view of the piazza or plaza at the Vatican, also known as St. Peter's square. The large eight-rayed sun wheel design, symbolic of Ishtar, is immediately noticeable.

In the wake of widespread popular usage, the Nazi Party
formally adopted the swastika in 1920
Icon of Shamash, Assyrian relief 865–860 B.C.E.
Shamash in an Assyrian winged sun emblem (North-West Palace of Nimrud, 9th century BC; British Museum room B, panel 23). This iconography later gave rise to the Zoroastrian Faravahar symbol. According to the 1911 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, the Shamash cults at Sippar and Larsa so overshadowed local sun-deities elsewhere as to lead to an absorption of the minor deities by the predominating one.

Faravahar is one of the best-known symbols of Zoroastrianism, the state religion of ancient Iran. The Faravahar-symbol was influenced by the Assyrians. This religious-cultural symbol was adapted by the Pahlavi dynasty to represent the Iranian nation.

The winged disc has a long history in the art and culture of the ancient Near and Middle East. Historically, the symbol is influenced by the "winged sun" hieroglyph appearing on Bronze Age royal seals (Luwian SOL SUUS, symbolizing royal power in particular). In Neo-Assyrian times, a human bust is added to the disk, the "feather-robed archer" interpreted as symbolizing Ashur (Asshur), the second son of Shem, the son of Noah. Ashur's brothers were Elam, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram. The Hebrew text of Genesis 10:11 is somewhat ambiguous as to whether it was Asshur himself (as the 1611 Authorized Version says), or Nimrod (as in some other English translations) who, according to Biblical tradition, built the Assyrian cities of Nineveh, Resen, Rehoboth-Ir and Calah, since the name Asshur can refer to both the person and the country.

Because the symbol first appears on royal inscriptions, it is also thought to represent the 'Divine Royal Glory' (Khvarenah). NOTE: Horus is one of the oldest and most significant deities in ancient Egyptian religion, who was worshipped from at least the late Predynastic period through to Greco-Roman times. Hous was most often depicted as a falcon, or as a man with a falcon head, and was the protector of Emperors.


Notice Pope John Paul II wearing a Mitre with a sunburst embossed on it.

THE RAYS OF SHAMASH:

The Assyro-Babylonian sun god, Shamash (or Utu in ancient Summeria), was often depicted by a 4-pointed star-like symbol with wavy lines emanating from between four protruding lobes. 'Floating' in the free space of the middle of the symbol is a heavy dot or circle separate from the rest of the icon. All this was typically circumscribed by a thick outer circle.

Together with Nannar–Sin and Ishtar, Shamash completes another triad by the side of Anu, Enlil and Ea. The three powers Sin, Shamash and Ishtar symbolized three great forces of nature: the moon, the sun, and the life-giving force of the earth, respectively.

The Cult of the Mithras or Mithraic Mysteries were a mystery religion practiced in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to 4th centuries AD.

Mithraism became the Roman catholic religion to try and supplant the underground Christian movement of Jesus Christ's followers.


Pope Francis I giving adoration to a Monstrance.

THE VATICAN --- SUN AND MOON WORSHIP:

The Vatican library has over 75K manuscripts and 1.1 million printed books—many on Pagan cult worship. Mithras or Mica, a Persian then Roman sun god. The Roman Mithras wore a Phrygian cap. Phrygia was in the Persian empire for 200 years. Modern scholars have traced Mithras in Persian to Indian and Roman mythology. Mithra also denotes Maitreya (a future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology). Notice the crescent moon cradle within the sun shaped monstrance (above). This is where they place the mythical communion wafer for priests to parade it before people, so they can worship the sun goddess and moon god. Notice the "Virgin Mary” clothed with the sun, with the crescent moon under her feet" (above).

In Roman mythology, Diana was the goddess of the moon, the hunt and birthing. She had an independent origin in Italy. Diana was worshipped in ancient Roman religion and is revered in Roman Neopaganism and Stregheria. Dianic Wicca, a largely feminist form of the practice, is named for her. Diana was one of the three maiden goddesses, Diana, Minerva and Vesta, who swore never to marry. According to mythology, Diana was born with her twin brother Apollo on the island of Delos, daughter of Jupiter and Latona.

Diana was initially just the hunting goddess. She later became a moon goddess, supplanting Titan goddess Luna.

Diana was worshipped at a festival on August 13, when King Servius Tullius dedicated her temple on the Aventine Hill in the mid-6th century BC. The Aventine Hill is one of the seven hills on which ancient Rome was built. It seems that her cult originated in Aricia, where her priest, the Rex Nemorensis remained. There the simple open-air fane was held in common by the Latin tribes, which Rome aspired to weld into a league and direct.

Deuteronomy 4:19 (NLT)
19 And when you look up into the sky and see the sun, moon, and stars—all the forces of heaven—don’t be seduced into worshiping them. The Lord your God gave them to all the peoples of the earth.

If Pope Francis I wants to make real reform, then tear down the shrines, altars and idols, and lead the Roman Catholic Church to only focus on Jesus Christ, Not men and myths (Exodus 20:4-6; Matthew 6:7-8; Matthew 10:37-42; Matthew 23:9; Luke 11:27-28; 2 Corinthians 11:3-4)




The Dome of the Rock is on the site of the 2nd Jewish temple—destroyed by the Romans in 70 AD. It was initially completed in 691 AD at the order of Muslim Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (AD 646 – AD 705), during the Second Fitna (Islamic Civil War). This made Jerusalem the 2nd most holy place in the Islam faith. The Dome of the Rock is a shrine (Ancient Egyptian Arabic Order Nobles Mystic Shrine aka Shriners) located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem. The domed central plan structure was patterned after the Roman Catholic Church of the Holy Sepulcher.

NOTE: The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, also called the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, or the Church of the Resurrection by Eastern Catholics, is a church within the Roman Catholic and Catholic Eastern Orthodox Quarter of the walled Old City of Jerusalem. It is a few steps away from the Muristan (the site was the location of the first hospital of the Knights Hospitaller).

In the 2nd century AD, the site of the present Church had been a temple to Venus; the Roman equivalent to Aphrodite. Emperor Constantine I aka Constantine the Great in about AD 325/326 ordered Macarius of Jerusalem, the local Bishop, to build a church on the site. Constantine also directed his mother, Helena, to build churches upon other sites, such as the "new Church of the Holy Apostles" on the site of a temple to Aphrodite in Constantinople (the former name of Istanbul, Turkey, from AD 330, when it was given its name by Constantine the Great, until the early 20th century). Constantine the Great's mother, Helena, a a Bithynian woman, was present in AD 326 at the construction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and involved herself in the excavations and construction. Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in NW Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea).

Church of The Holy Sepulcher 1885
The site of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is venerated as Golgotha (the Hill of Calvary), where Jesus was supposedly crucified, and is said also to contain the place where Jesus was buried (the Sepulchre). Anglican and Protestant Christians have no permanent presence in the Church[7b] --- and have regarded the alternative Garden Tomb, elsewhere in Jerusalem, as the true place of Jesus's crucifixion and resurrection.

This Church was damaged by fire in AD 614 when the Persians (Iranians), under Khosrau II, invaded Jerusalem and captured the Cross. In AD 630, Emperor Heraclius marched triumphantly into Jerusalem and rebuilt Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Under the Muslims it remained a Roman Catholic Church.

On October 18, 1009, Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ordered the complete destruction of the church. In wide ranging negotiations between the Fatimids and the Byzantine Empire in 1027-8 an agreement was reached whereby the new Caliph Ali az-Zahir (Al-Hakim's son) agreed to allowing the rebuilding and redecoration of the Church. The rebuilding was finally completed with the financing of the huge expense by Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos and Patriarch Nicephorus of Constantinople in 1048. As a concession, the mosque in Constantinople was re-opened and sermons were to be pronounced in az-Zahir's name. In addition the Byzantines, while releasing 5,000 Muslim prisoners, made demands for the restoration of other churches destroyed by Al-Hakim and the re-establishment of a Patriarch in Jerusalem.

THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE IS A CHAPEL TO JUPITER
AND THE GODDESS APHRODITE (VENUS/SUN WORSHIP)

The chronicler William of Tyre reports on the renovation of the Church in the mid-12th century. The crusaders investigated the eastern ruins on the site, occasionally excavating through the rubble, and while attempting to reach the cistern, they discovered part of the original ground level of Roman Emperor Hadrian's temple to Jupiter enclosure; they decided to transform this space into a chapel, widening their original excavation tunnel into a proper staircase.

The site of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre had been a temple of Aphrodite prior to Constantine's edifice being built. Hadrian's temple had actually been located there because it was the junction of the main north-south road with one of the two main east-west roads and directly adjacent to the Forum (which is now the location of the smaller Knights Hospitaller hospital --- St. John's Ambulance).

The Forum (a public square in a Roman municipium, or any civitas, reserved primarily for the vending of goods) itself had been placed, as is traditional in Roman towns, at the junction of the main north-south road with the other main east-west road in Aelia Capitolina, which is now Suq el-Bazar (Bazaar Market; called David Street by Israelis).

A suk or souk also spelled shuk, shooq, soq, souk, esouk, sooq, souq, or suq, is an open-air marketplace or commercial quarter in Middle Eastern and North African cities. The equivalent Persian term is "bazaar."

John 2:15-16 (NLT)
15 Jesus made a whip from some ropes and chased them all out of the Temple. He drove out the sheep and cattle, scattered the money changers’ coins over the floor, and turned over their tables. 16 Then, going over to the people who sold doves, he told them, “Get these things out of here. Stop turning my Father’s house into a marketplace!”


The Knights Templar, who believed the Dome of the Rock was the site of the Temple of Solomon, later set up their headquarters in the Al-Aqsa Mosque adjacent to the Dome for much of the 12th century. The Templars called the Dome of the Rock, "Templum Domini," which was featured on the official seals of the Templar's Grand Masters (such as Everard des Barres and Renaud de Vichiers). Some scholars argue that it was the Rotunda of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre that became the official seals of the Templar's Grand Masters, and architectural model for Templar churches across Europe.

Turkey fell and Spain and Portugal were invaded by Islamic forces. In Portugal, they called a mountain village "Fatima" in honor of Muhammad's daughter, never dreaming it would become world famous.

Years later when the Muslim armies were poised on the islands of Sardinia and Corsica, to invade Italy, there was a serious problem. The Islamic generals realized they were too far extended. It was time for peace talks. One of the negotiators was Francis of Assisi. In 1219, he went to Egypt in an attempt to convert the Sultan to put an end to the conflict of the Crusades.[8]

NOTE: Byzantium remained the capital of the Byzantine Empire until 1453 AD, when it was conquered by the Muslims and became the capital of the Ottoman Empire. Since the establishment of modern Turkey in 1923, the Turkish name of the city, Istanbul, has replaced the name Constantinople in the West. As a result, the Muslims were allowed to occupy Turkey, and the Catholics were allowed to occupy Lebanon in the Arab world. It was also agreed that the Muslims could build mosques in Catholic countries without interference as long as Roman Catholicism could flourish in Arab countries. A light control was kept on Muslims from the Ayatollah down through the Islamic priests, nuns and monks. The Vatican also engineered a campaign of hatred between the Muslim Arabs and the Jews. Before this, Jews and Muslims had co-existed peacefully in the Middle East. The bilateral agreements between the Vatican and the religion of Islam go as far back as AD 629.

Did the Early Church of Rome Create the Islamic Religion?

THINK ABOUT THIS: Who influenced Waraka ibn Nawfal to be a "Jewish Christian" in the 7th century AD? It had to be the 7th century Papacy that influenced Muhammed's older relative. This gives rise to the question of whether or not the early Church and Papacy created the Islamic religion to supplant Evangelical Christians and Judaism in the Middle East.

Muhammad is later said to have said of Waraka: "Do not slander Waraka ibn Nawfal, for I have seen that he will have one or two gardens in Paradise."[9][-]

THE MOON GOD MARRIED THE SUN GOD:

The Ghassanids were a group of South Arabian pseduo "Christian tribes" that emigrated in the early 3rd century from Yemen to the Hauran in Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and the Holy Land where some intermarried with Hellenized Roman settlers and early indigenous Greek-speaking Christian communities of the region. The term Ghassān refers to the kingdom of the Ghassanids, an ancient Christian kingdom in the Levant, that was a client state to the Eastern Roman and Byzantine Empire. They fought alongside the Byzantine Empire against the Persian Sassanids and North Arabian Lakhmids. After the fall of the first kingdom, the Ghassanid Dynasty ruled other realms, both Christian and Muslim, until 1747 AD in Mount Lebanon.[7] [-]

THE ROMAN CATHOLIC "MUSLIM-CHRISTIAN" GHASSANIDS

The jurisprudence of both the Balfour Declaration and the Peace Treaty of Versailles granted to both Arabs and Jews the concession of land based on "ancient and continuous residency" and also based on "religious attachment and believes." The official position of the House of Ghassan (the Arab clan that defeated Muhammad and his troops fighting along side the Byzantine Empire in AD 629) is to have the full recognition of both the State of Israel and the State of Palestine....This position of the Ghassanid "Christian/Muslims" is consistent with its number one supporter, the Vatican, which has permanent observer status in the United Nations---as well as holds multilateral relations with the EU.


May 14, 1999 - John Paul II kisses the Koran (Qu'ran) at the Vatican.

To the objectors who claim that this book was not the Koran, we present an excerpt from an interview with FIDES News Service (June 1, 1999). In it, Chaldean Catholic Patriarch Raphael I affirmed that he was present when John Paul II kissed the Muslim "holy" book:

 "On May 14th I was received by the Pope, together with a delegation composed of the Shi'ite imam of Khadum mosque and the Sunni president of the council of administration of the Iraqi Islamic Bank. There was also a representative of the Iraqi ministry of religion. .... 

"At the end of the audience the Pope bowed to the Muslim holy book, the Qu'ran, presented to him by the delegation, and he kissed it as a sign of respect. The photo of that gesture has been shown repeatedly on Iraqi television and it demonstrates that the Pope is not only aware of the suffering of the Iraqi people, he has also great respect for Islam." 

The most recent bilateral agreement between the Vatican and Islamic Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was signed on February 15, 2000. The Vatican wants to make Jerusalem and international city controlled by the Papacy. Mecca, Saudi Arabia, is the most holy city for Muslims. After Muhammad was rejected as a prophet by the Jews in Jerusalem, he told his followers outside Mecca to no longer pray toward Jerusalem. The Dome of the Rock is considered “the most contested piece of real estate on earth.


On November 30, 2006, Pope Benedict XVI prayed at the Blue Mosque in Turkey. The spin the Catholic media put on Pope Benedict XVI, barefoot and facing Mecca, joining the Muslim mufti in prayer was that the Pope was making a symbolic act. Even before the visit was over, papal spokesman Father Federico Lombardi was pointing out to journalists that the Pope had not actually prayed, but was “in meditation.” Read Revelation 18:4 and 2 Thessalonians 2.

2 Thessalonians 2:3-4 (NLT)

3 Don’t be fooled by what they say. For that day will not come until there is a great rebellion against God and the man of lawlessness[a] is revealed—the one who brings destruction.[b] 4 He will exalt himself and defy everything that people call god and every object of worship. He will even sit in the temple of God, claiming that he himself is God.

Footnotes:
2:3a Some manuscripts read the man of sin.
2:3b Greek the son of destruction.

REUTERS NEWS AGENCY - NOVEMBER 2012

The Vatican hailed with favor the decision of the UN General Assembly by which Palestine has become a Non-member Observer State in November 2012. 

(SOURCE: Reuters: Vatican Hails UN Palestinian State Vote, Calls For Special Status For Jerusalem By Philip Pullella, 11/29/2012).

WE ARE LIVING IN THE PERIOD OF REVELATION 18

Revelation 18:1-8 (NIV)

Lament Over Fallen Babylon

18 After this I saw another angel coming down from heaven. He had great authority, and the earth was illuminated by his splendor. 2 With a mighty voice he shouted:

“‘Fallen! Fallen is Babylon the Great!’[a]
    She has become a dwelling for demons
and a haunt for every impure spirit,
    a haunt for every unclean bird,
    a haunt for every unclean and detestable animal.
3 For all the nations have drunk
    the maddening wine of her adulteries.
The kings of the earth committed adultery with her,
    and the merchants of the earth grew rich from her excessive luxuries.”

Warning to Escape Babylon’s Judgment

4 Then I heard another voice from heaven say:

“‘Come out of her, my people,’[b]
    so that you will not share in her sins,
    so that you will not receive any of her plagues;
5 for her sins are piled up to heaven,
    and God has remembered her crimes.
Give back to her as she has given;
    pay her back double for what she has done.
    Pour her a double portion from her own cup.
7 Give her as much torment and grief
    as the glory and luxury she gave herself.
In her heart she boasts,
    ‘I sit enthroned as queen.
I am not a widow;[c]
    I will never mourn.’
8 Therefore in one day her plagues will overtake her:
    death, mourning and famine.
She will be consumed by fire,
    for mighty is the Lord God who judges her.

[bold emphasis added]

Footnotes:
a. Revelation 18:2 Isaiah 21:9
b. Revelation 18:4 Jer. 51:45
c. Revelation 18:7 See Isaiah 47:7,8.

The Holy Bible uses the symbol of a woman to reflect a global church. Compare the woman in Revelation 12 (clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet and a crown of twelve stars on her head) to the woman or global church in Revelation 17 and 18. Also cross reference the 12 Tribes of Israel in Revelation 7 to Revelation 12, 14 and Revelation 20:4.

I fervently believe that Revelation 12 is about the Antichrist(s) and false prophet's attack against the faithful of the world's three great monotheistic religions ("Christianity," Judaism and Islam), who have been deceived by false doctrines, dogma, Tradition(s) and rituals---the international and economic sanctions against Israel now is only the first stage.

The Threefold Woe Over Babylon’s Fall are the next few stages, so please read Revelation 18:9-24.

Also read Revelation 12, 13 and 14.  Then read 1 Thessalonias 4:13-18, 1 Thessalonians 5:3-4, 1 Thessalonians 5:9, Revelation 19, Revelation 20, and the hope of Revelation 21 and Revelation 22. God wants the world to repent (2 Peter 3:9) and to believe in His Word (the Holy Bible), as well as His Living Word, Jesus Christ (John 1:1; John 14:1; 1 John 5:7 (KJV) and Revelation 19:13). TRUST JESUS CHRIST AS YOUR SAVIOR, NOT MANKIND!

**** Did the first Four Caliphs after Muhammad come from the House of Ghassan (the Arab clan that defeated Muhammad and his troops fighting along side the Byzantine Empire in 
The Battle of Mu'tah in AD 629)?

Please do your own research and consider putting your faith only in Jesus Christ as your personal Savior and Lord of your life (John 3:16-17; Romans 10:9).

Please also read Ephesians 5:23 about Jesus Christ as the ONLY head of His church, and the Apostle Paul's writings about the early church and its impostors at the Council of Jerusalem in AD 50 (Galatians chapter 2).

THE PROPHECY OF 1 TIMOTHY 4:1-3 IS ISLAM AND CATHOLICISM


STOP BLAMING THE RCC FOR YOUR LACK OF FAITH AND WORSHIP!

Please stop blaming the Roman Catholic Church for why you have Not found a Bible-based church to go to and worship God one day a week with other believers.

To better understand what it means to Worship God, Fellowship with other Christians, Be a Disciple of Jesus, take part in your churches Ministry by volunteering and have a Mission field in your community, read The Purpose Driven Life: What on Earth Am I Here For by Pastor Rick Warren.

Hebrews 10:24-25 (NLT)

24 Let us think of ways to motivate one another to acts of love and good works. 25 And let us not neglect our meeting together, as some people do, but encourage one another, especially now that the day of his return is drawing near.

Godspeed, love and Truth,

Brother David Johnson, XU

2 Corinthians 11:12-15
New Living Translation (NLT)

12 But I will continue doing what I have always done. This will undercut those who are looking for an opportunity to boast that their work is just like ours. 13 These people are false apostles. They are deceitful workers who disguise themselves as apostles of Christ. 14 But I am not surprised! Even Satan disguises himself as an angel of light. 15 So it is no wonder that his servants also disguise themselves as servants of righteousness. In the end they will get the punishment their wicked deeds deserve.

Footnotes:

Footnotes:

1. Benjamin Isaac, The Near East under Roman Rule: Selected Papers (Leiden: Brill 1998)
2. Jerusalem in Early Christian Thought" p75 Explorations in a Christian theology of pilgrimage ed Craig G. Bartholomew, Fred Hughes
3. Ibn Hisham, The Life of Muhammad, 3rd ed., vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 73.
4. Cross, EA; Livingston, FL, eds. (1989). "Ebionites". The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford University Press.
5. Kohler, Kaufmann (1901–06). "Ebionites". In Singer, Isidore; Alder, Cyrus. Jewish Encyclopedia.
6. Sayed Ali Asgher Razwy (1996), A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims, The Battle of Mootah, ISBN 0-9509879-1-3
7. Nazer, Abdul (2012). Sense and Sensibility in Islam: Linguistics, Context and Rationality. Xlibiris Corporation. [-]
7b. The search for a Protestant Holy Sepulchre: the Garden Tomb in nineteenth-century Jerusalem, The Journal of Ecclesiastical History, April 01, 1995, Kochav, Sarah
8. Tolan, John (2009). St. Francis and the Sultan: The Curious History of a Christian-Muslim Encounter. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199239726.
9. Saheeh al-Jaami as-Sagheer, 6/1534, no. 7197

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